By Colonel Joseph B. Mackey & Lieutenant Colonel Aaron L. Lykling
Life’s most persistent and urgent question is, “What are you doing for others? 1
Organizational leaders routinely and rightfully proclaim that “people are our greatest strength.” Yet these words ring hollow when leaders’ actions suggest otherwise. Trust is the foundation of effective teams, but many leaders across domains are experiencing a trust deficit.2 How can we, as Judge Advocate General’s (JAG) Corps leaders, truly put people first, inspire trust, and bring out the best in our teams? It starts with servant leadership—the basic notion that “if you take care of people, they will take care of everything else.”3 This Azimuth Check explores the origins and intent of servant leadership, examines its key elements, and offers ways to maximize your impact as a servant leader—regardless of rank or duty position.
Servant leadership is one of our Corps’s Constants,4 and is the way we advance The Judge Advocate General’s priority to “lead, mentor, and care for our people—always.”5 It is also the key to building an organizational culture of teamwork and a legacy of future selfless leaders. As the late-poet Maya Angelou reminds us: “People will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.”6 This article builds on the core principles of servant leadership that then-Major General Stuart Risch introduced in an instructive video on the topic.7 The insights we offer are by no means novel or exhaustive.8 Rather, our aim is to reinforce the servant-leader mindset and to prompt reflection, dialogue, and perhaps some positive change. As flawed human beings, none of us9 will ever be a perfect leader. We can, however, strive for continuous improvement, show genuine care for our teammates, and inspire others to do the same.
Defining Servant Leadership
Leaders demonstrate servant leadership when they put those they lead before themselves. A leader does this by providing purpose, direction, and motivation; they devote and commit themselves to the well-being and growth of those they serve.10
Servant leadership is not a new philosophy. History is replete with examples of servant leaders, including Abraham Lincoln, Clara Barton, Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Mother Theresa. While the basic idea of servant leadership is timeless, Robert K. Greenleaf launched the modern movement with his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader. 11 Greenleaf introduced his theory through the character Leo from Hermann Hesse’s novel, Journey to the East. 12 Leo was the humble servant for a band of travelers on a pilgrimage, performing menial tasks and lifting morale. When Leo suddenly disappears, the group falls apart and abandons their quest. It later becomes apparent that Leo was the true leader. Greenleaf describes Leo and the concept of servant leadership as “portray[ing] at once two roles that are often seen as antithetical in our culture: the servant who, by acting with integrity and spirit, builds trust and lifts people and helps them grow, and the leader who is trusted and who shapes others’ destinies by going out ahead to show the way.”13 He ultimately concludes it is possible for a leader to simultaneously fulfill both roles to great effect.
While servant leadership applies in every organizational setting, it has special relevance in the military. Despite its traditional hierarchical structure, leadership experts often point to the military as a model of servant leadership. Our experience validates the centrality of servant leadership to our dual professions. We are committed to each other in collectively providing legal support to our clients in service to our Nation. People are the Army’s “center of gravity” and enduring advantage.
The concept of servant leadership quickly took hold among business and leadership audiences. Scholars and leadership experts expanded on Greenleaf’s work and distilled the core traits of servant leaders.14 While there is no universal definition of servant leadership, the Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership now defines it as “a philosophy and set of practices that enriches the lives of individuals, builds better organizations and ultimately creates a more just and caring world.”15 Put simply, servant leaders place the needs of others first, helping people and the organization flourish.
Many successful companies such as Southwest Airlines, Starbucks, Whole Foods, and Zappos espouse servant leadership and have instilled it into their corporate cultures.16 According to Forbes magazine, “Servant-led companies are more likely to outperform competitors, retain employees, and develop future leaders than companies that operate out of more traditional ‘command-and-control’ leadership styles.”17 The upheaval caused by the global pandemic has accentuated the importance of servant leadership to individual and organizational well-being. Servant leaders are as necessary as ever.
While servant leadership applies in every organizational setting, it has special relevance in the military. Despite its traditional hierarchical structure, leadership experts often point to the military as a model of servant leadership.18 Our experience validates the centrality of servant leadership to our dual professions. We are committed to each other in collectively providing legal support to our clients in service to our Nation. People are the Army’s “center of gravity” and enduring advantage.19 Our awesome mandate to be trained and organized to accomplish the impossible demands the type of servant leader that Greenleaf saw in Leo, which requires deliberate personal and organizational effort.
Servant leadership is not expressly defined in Army doctrine, but the theme suffuses the Oath of Office, the Army Values, regulations, initiatives like the Army People Strategy, and our leadership doctrine. Starting with the fundamentals of the Army Ethic and profession, Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 6-22, Army Leadership and the Profession, highlights our roles as “honorable servants in defense of the Nation.”20 Beyond this key theme of service to country, our Army Values emphasize broader expectations for character of service and treatment of our teammates. While each of the seven values touches on treatment of others, selfless service is the closest related to servant leadership—putting the welfare not only of the Nation, but also of others before your own.21Elements of servant leadership are also woven into many Army regulations like Army Regulation (AR) 623-3, Evaluation Reporting System, which explicitly outlines the supervisory duties to develop and fairly rate subordinates.22 Finally, the Army People Strategy promotes servant leadership principles with its prevailing focus on “fostering an inclusive environment—one which facilitates collaboration, equitable treatment, and creativity.”23
Parenting is perhaps the most familiar example of servant leadership. Colonel (Retired) Kevan Jacobson powerfully described this analogy in his leadership address to the JAG Corps’s 2014 Worldwide Continuing Legal Education (WWCLE) conference.24 Colonel Jacobson highlighted the leader’s role as a parent, not in a pejorative or condescending manner, but rather a healthy one driven by an unbreakable bond of deep care and love found among family. Similar to that of an experienced parent, the role of the servant leader goes well beyond the basics of care and sustainment to that of a development facilitator. The primary developmental goal is to help those in their care become stronger and more successful than them.25 Also like a parent, the servant leader’s role persists well beyond the temporal initial supervisory association to a broader enduring relationship. In less familial terms, the servant leader looks beyond the shortsighted transactional outputs and aims for the transformational growth.
In seeking to understand servant leadership, it is also helpful to consider what servant leadership is not. Being a servant leader is not an abdication of one’s leadership role or positional power. The servant leader is still the leader, not only setting the example for standards and character but also being responsible for the entire organization. An absence of this intentional leadership leaves a team adrift, resulting in atrophy, disorder, and frustration. The senior person assigned is still in charge, demands excellence, and holds people accountable for their performance and actions.26 A key difference is humility and the subordination of ego.27 The servant leader is a member of the team committed to the organization and mission, rather than the team committed to serving the leader. As organizational psychologist Adam Grant puts it, “Selfish leaders divide people for personal profit. Servant leaders unite people for collective purpose.”M28
While a doctrinal definition of the servant leader may be elusive, ADP 6-22 succinctly describes the opposite—the selfish leader. The discussion of counterproductive leadership is valuable for all leaders to read and heed,29 but the aspect of self-serving behaviors bears directly on the concept of servant leadership. It describes the anti-servant leader as one who seeks primarily to accomplish their own goals and needs before others.
Distilling Servant Leadership
Think for a moment about the best leader you have encountered, whether a boss, a coach, a parent, or a peer. Now consider the best team on which you have served. What qualities or behaviors stood out? Chances are the leader and members of the organization displayed a combination of the servant leader characteristics described below. While the profusion of books, essays, videos, podcasts, and courses on servant leadership can be overwhelming,30 the basic principles overlap and common patterns emerge.31 When viewed deliberately through the lens of servant leadership, it becomes clear that all desirable doctrinal leader attributes32 benefit the collective team. However, a few less examined servant leader traits are especially relevant to the military and legal professions.
Compassion and tolerance are not a sign of weakness, but a sign of strength.33
While not an enumerated doctrinal leader attribute, compassion is a necessary companion to the often-discussed and critical trait of empathy. The Army’s heightened focus on eliminating counterproductive leadership has underscored the importance of empathy, defined as the ability to “genuinely relate to another person’s situation, motives, or feelings.”34 However, empathy is only effective if it manifests as compassion. Compassion is essential when someone is experiencing personal or professional hardship. A reflexive mistake that leaders often make in these situations is to grant excessive time off as the solution. Although well-intentioned, disengagement delays addressing the problem and separates the person from supporting teammates and assistance when it is needed most. It is during these most difficult times when leaders can be most influential in peoples’ lives, for the better or worse. Compassion doesn’t mean overlooking mistakes or poor performance, but it does guide the manner in how we address shortcomings. Compassion is most effective if it comes from a relatable leader. It is one thing to be shown patience and understanding in times of need, but a far different one to share the experience with a leader who has navigated the same or similar problems. We wouldn’t think twice about giving food and water to a teammate in need, so why would we withhold vital personal information that could help others progress? This is another time when egos are set aside and the leader can more effectively serve by sharing our own vulnerabilities and how we overcame similar problems.
You must be a steady constant amid the chaos and change.35
Soldiers and their families face formidable stressors and uncertainty given the nature of the Army’s mission, and the legal profession brings its own unique demands. We also live and operate in especially turbulent times. As the JAG Corps leadership described in their welcome message to the Regiment in July 2021: “The last eighteen months have presented challenges individually, across our Nation, and on a global scale not seen in generations. Yet in response to the immense challenges, each of you has proven to be the trusted professionals our Army and Nation needed.”36 Steady leadership was the linchpin of this effort and will remain critical as we navigate an uncertain future. Steadiness starts with consistently being present. People look to leaders to help them gain clarity, confidence, and resolve in the face of adversity. Leaders who consistently radiate calm put others at ease and create a sense of psychological safety.37 They constructively channel stress, reframe challenges as opportunities, and use setbacks as a springboard for learning. Steady leaders create a climate where people feel comfortable delivering bad news, offering opinions, sharing emotions, and seeking or offering help.38 The best leaders “regulate their reactions” and think deliberately before responding,39 whether in a crisis or everyday situation. Human beings take our cues from each other, and the servant leader must be mindful of setting a steady tone for the team. Don’t underestimate the power of your example.
If you don’t believe in the messenger, you won’t believe the message.40
Authenticity is a key driver of credibility and trust. As authors James Kouzes and Barry Posner explain: “Above all else, people must be able to believe in their leaders. They must believe that your word can be trusted, that you are personally passionate and enthusiastic about the work that you’re doing, and that you have the necessary knowledge and skill to lead.”41 People must also believe you genuinely have their best interests at heart. And most of us can quickly spot a phony when leaders don’t walk their talk and fulfill their commitments. As one observer wryly observed, “every leader has the informal equivalent of a ‘Yelp’ score that will eventually come to light.”42 An obvious aspect of being authentic is simply being yourself. Charisma, in particular, is overrated and falls flat if not backed by action.43
Authenticity can amplify servant leadership in two areas especially: showing vulnerability and gratitude. First, leaders who display appropriate vulnerability about their own mistakes, concerns, and challenges are perceived as more transparent and trustworthy. Sharing your own vulnerabilities also opens lines of communication and helps others feel safe. As an excellent book by the same title aptly describes, “leadership is a relationship.”44 People crave genuine personal connections with relatable leaders, and demonstrating your own vulnerability—and humanity—can make a big difference.
Another basic human need is to feel relevant and valued. Awards and positive evaluations are appropriate ways to recognize great work, but a timely and sincere “thank you” is the simplest and often most effective way to show gratitude. People care deeply about their work and any form of gratitude will make them feel valued, so long as it is genuine. Similarly, look for opportunities to showcase the compassionate and generous acts of your teammates. Publicly recognizing these behaviors creates a positive cycle and helps embed the right norms in the organization.
Self-Care and Resiliency
You cannot serve from an empty vessel.45
Any discussion about leadership is incomplete without addressing self-care and resiliency. No matter how experienced the leader, the simple truth is that you must take care of yourself if you want to take care of others. A leader must first be present and functioning, which is impossible with prolonged self-neglect. There is great merit to the long-standing maxim “leaders eat last” as both a symbolic and tangible sign of servant leadership, but leaders still have to eat—and rest, exercise, and otherwise care for themselves. Much like airplane safety instructions tell people to put on their own mask first, leaders are unable to care for others if they don’t take care of themselves. The principle of self-care is far from selfish; it is a prerequisite to care for the organization’s people and mission. Many a well-meaning commander and sergeant major have succumbed to burnout and fallen out of the mission, leaving a vacuum at the very moment their leadership was needed most. Selfless service is not synonymous with self-sacrifice of basic needs, which is done only when necessary. The imperative of self-care extends to our families, who serve and sacrifice right alongside our Service members. They too deserve great care, not only for who they are but also for their shared service to our country and our teammates.
Starting and Staying on the Path
As goes the noble endeavor to lead well, the discussion inevitably concludes with questions from those seeking improvement and lessons learned from the experienced. This question also reminds us that regardless of our formal position in an organization, we are all leaders who can influence our organizational climate and culture. While ADP 6-22 provides a useful roadmap for the fundamentals of leadership, one can get lost in the doctrinal approach and miss the forest for the trees. Similarly, the list of available books, essays, videos, and tutorials on leadership can overwhelm even the most intellectually curious and committed leader. One way to start is to answer Colonel Jacobson’s question—“Do you really care?” Given that you are reading this article, the answer is most likely a resounding “yes.” The challenge is how to effectively show it. Like most things good in life, there is no easy path to great leadership but it is easy to see the results. Perhaps this is why Greenleaf articulated an end-state condition from which to evaluate a servant leader. He writes that “the best test, and difficult to administer, is: do those being served grow as persons; do they become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous while being served.”46 Another way to put this is whether the followers themselves become servant leaders. But rather than provide a results-based test from which to look back on, a more forward-looking approach is to ask yourself if you have done enough for your people. While there is never enough time to do everything you want for both team and mission, the real question is whether you’ve given as much as you can while still preserving your ability to endure for yourself, your family, and your organization. Because this varies depending on individual circumstances regarding team, mission, and personal ability, it is a question only you alone can answer. TAL
COL Mackey is the staff judge advocate, XVIII Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg, North Carolina.
LTC Lykling is the chief, Judge Advocate Recruiting Office, Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
COL Mackey and LTC Lykling served together as the staff judge advocate and deputy staff judge advocate, 7th Army Training Command, Grafenwöhr, Germany, from 2017 to 2019.
1. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Address in Montgomery, Alabama (1957).
2. Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, 3 Leadership Traits We Desperately Need in 2021, Fast Co. (Mar. 6, 2021), https://www.fastcompany.com/90610607/3-leadership-traits-we-desperately-need-in-2021 (citing a survey showing “[r]oughly one in two people distrust their leaders”).
3. #41: Brigadier General Joe Berger—On Empathy, People First Leadership, and Being a Beginner, Intentional Leader (June 17, 2020), https://calwalters.me/podcast-1/tag/army+jag+corps [hereinafter Brigadier General Berger Podcast].
4. Our Constants—Principled Counsel, Mastery of the Law, Servant Leadership, and Stewardship—are guideposts that shape our practice and properly position the Regiment for the future. See The Judge Advoc. Gen. & Deputy Judge Advoc. Gen., U.S. Army, TJAG & DJAG Sends, Vol. 41-01, Message to the Regiment (13 July 2021) [hereinafter TJAG & DJAG Sends Vol. 41-01].
5. The Judge Advocate General Lieutenant General Stuart Risch outlined his priorities during his 2021 Worldwide Continuing Legal Education presentation, “Trusted Professionals Since 1775: Transforming for the Future while Getting Back to Basics.” Lieutenant General Stuart Risch, The Judge Advoc. Gen., U.S. Army, Address at the Worldwide Continuing Legal Education Training: Trusted Professionals Since 1775: Transforming for the Future While Getting Back to Basics (Sept. 13, 2021).
6. Abby Borovitz, Maya Angelou’s Words to Live by, MSNBC, https://www.msnbc.com/the-cycle/maya-angelou-quotes-msna605571 (May 28, 2015, 1:22 PM).
7. Major General Stuart Risch, The Deputy Judge Advoc. Gen., U.S. Army, Servant Leadership, JAGCnet (Nov. 13, 2020), https://www.jagcnet2.army.mil/ Sites/jagc.nsf/homeContent.xsp?documentId=BCB07A931B24FB538525861F006608D9.
8. Countless books, articles, podcasts, and religious materials are devoted to the concept of servant leadership. The self-help literature available on Amazon.com alone contains a dizzying array of servant leadership “principles,” “pillars,” “frameworks,” “roadmaps,” and even a “manifesto.” A good starting point on servant leadership is the four-part series available on Cal Walters’s Intentional Leader podcast, which are all available at Intentional Leader, https://calwalters.me/podcast-1/category/Servant+Leadership (last visited Jan. 7, 2022). The eponymous hero in the heartwarming and hilarious Apple TV+ series, Ted Lasso, also doles out powerful servant leadership lessons. Ted Lasso (Ruby’s Tuna et al. 2020). The show tells the story of a folksy American football coach brought in to rescue a struggling British soccer team.
9. The authors emphatically stress that we recognize our own imperfection, flaws, and mistakes as we all travel down the same road in pursuit of improving as servant leaders.
10. The Judge Advoc. Gen.’s Corps, U.S. Army, Four Constants (2021), https://www.jagcnet. army.mil/Sites/jagc.nsf/0/46DCA0CA1EE75266852586C5004A681F/$File/US%20Army%20 JAG%20Corps%20Four%20Constants%20Smart%20 Card.pdf.
11. Robert K. Greenleaf, The Servant as Leader (1970).
12. Hermann Hesse, The Journey to the East (1932).
13. Robert K. Greenleaf, The Servant-leader Within: A Transformative Path 32 (2003).
14. Larry Spears was Greenleaf’s main ideological successor. Spears identified ten non-exhaustive characteristics of critical importance to servant leaders: listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community. Larry C. Spears,Character and Servant Leadership: Ten Characteristics of Effective, Caring Leaders, 1 J. Virtues & Leadership 25 (2010).
15. Start Here: What Is Servant Leadership?, Robert K. Greenleaf Ctr. for Servant Leadership, https://www. greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/ (last visited Dec. 16, 2021).
16. Edward D. Hess, Servant Leadership: A Path to High Performance, Wash. Post (Apr. 28, 2013), https:// www.washingtonpost.com/business/capitalbusiness/servant-leadership-a-path-to-high-performance/2013/04/26/435e58b2-a7b8-11e2-8302- 3c7e0ea97057_story.html. See also Larry W. Boone, Servant Leadership: Attitudes, Skills and Behaviours 4 (2019) (“[S]ervant leadership is emerging as a preferred practice as demonstrated by its adoption at numerous successful and admired business enterprises across all industries and cultures as well as at many government agencies and multitudes of not-for-profit organizations and religious institutions.”).
17. Kevin Kruse, Three Things You Probably Didn’t Know About Servant Leadership, Forbes (Nov. 8, 2021, 7:00 AM), https://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2021/11/08/three-things-you-probably-didntknow-about-servant-leadership/?sh=2dc674c53292. See also Tera Allas & Bill Schaninger, The Boss Factor: Making the World a Better Place Through Workplace Relationships, McKinsey Q. (Sept. 22, 2020), https://www. mckinsey.com/business-functions/people-and-organizational-performance/our-insights/the-boss-factor-making-the-world-a-better-place-through-workplace-relationships (“Research shows that this ‘servant leader’ mentality and disposition enhances both team performance and satisfaction.”).
18. See Simon Sinek, Leaders Eat Last: Why Some Teams Pull Together and Others Don’t 8 (2017).
19. U.S. Dep’t of Army, The Army People Strategy (2019).
20. U.S Dep’t of Army, Doctrine Pub. 6-22, Army Leadership and the Profession para. 1-9 (31 July 2019) (C1, 25 Nov. 2019) [hereinafter ADP 6-22].
21. Id. para. 2-9.
22. U.S Dep’t of Army, Reg. 623-3, Evaluation Reporting System para. 1-8 (14 June 2019) [hereinafter AR 623-3].
23. U.S. Dep’t of Army, Army People Strategy: Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Annex 4 (2020).
24. Colonel Kevan Jacobson, Address at the Worldwide Continuing Legal Education Training: Principles of Leadership (2014), https://tjaglcspublic.army.mil/ principles-of-leadership.
25. Leadership expert Simon Sinek neatly captured the connection between parenting and leadership in his famous TED Talk, “How Great Leaders Inspire Action,” which has been viewed over 57 million times. Simon Sinek, How Great Leaders Inspire Action, TED (Sept. 2009), https://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_ great_leaders_inspire_action?language=enLeadership (“Great leaders want exactly the same thing [as great parents] . . . . They want to build self-confidence, to give opportunities to try and fail, all so that they can achieve more than we could imagine for ourselves.”).
26. See Boone, supra note 16, at 10.
27. Dan Cable, How Humble Leadership Really Works, Harv. Bus. Rev. (Apr. 23, 2018) (adding that “[h]umility and servant leadership do not imply that leaders have low self-esteem, or take on an attitude of servility. Instead, servant leadership emphasizes that the responsibility of a leader is to increase the ownership, autonomy, and responsibility of followers. . . .”). For a superb example of humble leadership, consider Ulysses S. Grant’s actions during the Civil War as described in Ron Chernow’s sweeping biography. Ron Chernow, Grant (2017). Whether shouldering the blame for subordinates’ mistakes, welcoming disagreement, or wearing a tattered private’s jacket, Grant’s humility conveyed strength and decency. Id.
28. Adam Grant, LinkedIn, https://www.linkedin. com/posts/adammgrant_the-point-of-leadership-isnot-to-accumulate-activity-6573937737836085248- JaYg/ (last visited Jan. 7, 2022).
29. See ADP 6-22, supra note 20, paras. 8-45 to -50.
30. See Jeffrey Pfeffer, Getting Beyond the BS of Leadership Literature, McKinsey Q. (Jan. 1, 2016), https:// www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/leadership/ getting-beyond-the-bs-of-leadership-literature.
31. As the current Deputy Judge Advocate General, Major General Joe Berger has observed that while the term “servant leadership” is redundant, it serves as a “powerful reminder of the role we have to play, and that we should play, and that we should wantto play.” Brigadier General Berger Podcast, supra note 3. See also Patrick Lencioni, What’s Your Motive?, Glob. Leadership Network (Aug. 13, 2019), https://globalleadership. org/articles/leading-yourself/patrick-lencioni-whatsyour-motive/ (“Servant leadership is the only kind of leadership there is.”).
32. AR 623-3, supra note 22, para. 1-86.
33. Dalai Lama XIV [n.d.], goodreads, https://www. goodreads.com/quotes/9170389-compassion-andtolerance-are-not-a-sign-of-weakness-but (last visited Jan. 7, 2022).
34. Army Doctrine Publication 6-22 lists the three general attribute categories and specified attributes therein as “character” (Army values, empathy, warrior ethos and service ethos, discipline, and humility); “presence” (military and professional bearing, fitness, confidence, and resilience); and “intellect” (mental agility, sound judgement, innovation, interpersonal tact, and expertise). ADP 6-22, supra note 20, para. 2-23, tbl.3-1, para. 4-3.
35. Jacobson, supra note 24.
36. See TJAG & DJAG Sends Vol. 41-01, supra note 4.
37. Jacqueline Brassey & Michiel Kruyt, How to Demonstrate Calm and Optimism in a Crisis, McKinsey & Co. (Apr. 30, 2020), https://www.mckinsey.com/ business-functions/people-and-organizational-performance/our-insights/how-to-demonstrate-calm-andoptimism-in-a-crisis (“Leaders’ emotions have a big impact on an organization: when a leader is impatient, fearful, or frustrated, people begin to feel the same way, and their feelings of safety diminish. On the other hand, when a leader is hopeful and calm, the group can face challenges more creatively.”).
38. As the late General Colin Powell cautioned, “The day the soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership.” Colin L. Powell & Joseph E. Persico, My American Journey 52 (2010).
39. See Brassey & Kruyt, supra note 37.
40. James M. Kouzes & Barry Z. Posner, The Truth About Leadership: The No-Fads, Heart-of-the-Matter Facts You Need to Know 24 (2010).
41. Id. at 23.
42. Bill George, Authentic Leadership Rediscovered, Harv. Bus. Sch. (Nov. 10, 2015), https://hbswk.hbs.edu/ item/authentic-leadership-rediscovered.
43. See Susan Cain, Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking (2013).
44. Michael S. Erwin & Willys DeVoll, Leadership Is a Relationship: How to Put People First in the Digital World (2021).
45. Most Popular Quotes by Eleanor Brownn, Eleanor Brownn, http://www.eleanorbrownn.com/ (last visited Nov. 28, 2021).
46. Robert k. Greenleaf, Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power & Greatness 27 (1977)